Основные Сведения О Титане

Химический состав титанаTitanium is a chemical element with serial number 22, atomic weight 47.88, light silver-white metal. The density is 4.51 g/cm3, Tm = 1668+(-)5°C, b.p.= 3260°C. Titanium and titanium alloys combine lightness, durability, high corrosion resistance, low coefficient of heat expansion, ability to work in a wide range of temperatures.

History titanium's discovery

Titanium oxide TiO2 was first discovered in 1789 by the 28-year-old English monk William Gregor. In 1790, conducting mineralogical research in his parish, he noticed the prevalence and unusual properties of black sand in the valley of Menacana in the south-west of England and started to investigate it. In the sand the priest discovered particles of black, shiny mineral, attracted by an ordinary magnet. He named the unknown metal oxide menakanite. The first sample of metallic titanium was extracted by the Swedish chemist and mineral scientist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1825.
The purest titanium obtained in 1925 by Van Arkel and de Bour using iodide method was found to be a plastic and processable metal with a lot of valuable properties that drew the attention of a wide range of designers and engineers.

Titanium is a ductile metal, machinable: suitable for cutting, drilling, milling, grinding. Use it to produce different devices is not harder than from stainless steel.

Russia has the world's second largest reserves of titanium after China. The mineral-raw-material base of titanium in Russia totals 20 deposits (11 are primary and 9 placer deposits). The largest of the developed deposits (Yaregskoye) is located 25 km from the town of Ukhta, Komi Republic.
Metal extraction from a mineral deposit requires a huge amount of energy and time - it makes titanium expensive compared to other metals such as steel.

Advantages and disadvantages of titanium


  • Low density (4500 kg/m3) reduces the weight of the products;
  • High mechanical strength. It should be noted that at elevated temperatures (250-500°C), titanium alloys are stronger than high-strength aluminum and magnesium alloys;
  • Extremely high corrosion resistance due to the ability of titanium to form on the surface of thin (5-15 microns) solid TiO2 oxide films firmly dependent on the mass of the metal;
  • Strength-to-weight ratio of the best titanium alloys reaches 30-35 and more which almost twice exceeds that of alloyed steels.


  • High production costs, titanium is much more expensive than iron, aluminum, copper, magnesium;
  • Difficulties in using of titanium wastes in the production;

The high cost of titanium and its alloys is often compensated for by their greater efficiency and sometimes it is the only material fit to produce equipment or devices capable of operating under the certain conditions.

Области применения титана

Originally titanium was produced and used for the military and defense industries. However day by day the metal spreads more and more in other areas.
Titanium and its alloys have found wide application in engineering due to their high mechanical strength which lasts at high temperatures, corrosion resistance, heat resistance, strength-to-density ratio, low density and other useful properties.
The aviation industry is the main consumer of titanium products. Particularly the development of aviation technology gave impetus to titanium production. In physical and mechanical properties titanium alloys are a universal engineering material.
Titan helped man overcome the sound barrier in aviation and get into outer space. In rocket and space engineering titanium is practically indispensable.
A promising area of titanium alloys application is deep and super deep drilling. To extract underground resources and to study the deep layers of the earth's crust it is necessary to penetrate to very deep depths - up to 15-20 thousand meters. Conventional drill pipes will be ripped under their own weight at a depth of several thousand meters. And only pipes made of high-strength titanium based alloys are capable to go through really deep wells.
It is resistant to pollution of the urban atmosphere and the marine environment, acid rain, precipitations of volcanic ash, industrial emissions and other adverse weather conditions.
Titanium is not subjected to atmospheric effects and does not lose colour from ultraviolet rays. It also has excellent resistance to corrosion that can be result of acid rain and the effects of corrosive gases (sulfur dioxide gas, hydrogen sulfide gas, etc.). All this is a big advantage to use titanium for construction in large cities and industrial areas.

The reason of the popularity of titanium in sports equipment is its basic properties: lightness and strength.
Approximately 25-30 years ago a bicycle was made from titanium for the first time. Lightweight and durable titanium golf clubs gained popularity among golfers despite their high cost (compared to other materials). Almost all the items that climbers and tourists carry in backpacks are made of titanium: bottles, cups, cooking kits, tableware, tent ribs and mounts, ice axes, ice screws and even compact stoves. Titanium is used on a massive scale in the production of knives for diving, skating blades. Recently production of titanium pistols has started for shooting sports (and for law enforcement agencies).

Titanium is used in the production of jewelry, ballpoint and nib pens, watches, kitchenware and garden gears. Bodies of many laptop computers, mobile phones are made of titanium. It is very expensive but light and durable. Bodies of plasma TVs mounted on the walls are also made of titanium: this reduces their weight and allows to not worry about the firmness of the installation.
Another unusual use of titanium is the bell ringing. Bells made of titanium have an unusual, very beautiful sound. And you can also hear the voice of this metal from the little electric bells.
Применение титана в медицине

Titanium is extremely popular in medicine: orthopedists, cardiologists and cardiac surgeons, dentists, ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons. Titanium alloys are used to produce excellent surgical instruments, light and durable.

Titanium is a metal of surgeons.

The human body tolerates devices of titanium alloy. These alloys are used in medicine for years.
They are resistant to corrosion in aggressive environments of the human body.An oxide film forms on their surface that prevents ionic yield of an implant into the body. The tissues around such implants do not change and do not become inflamed.

Titanium alloys are very strong , able to withstand a severe load (for example, a hip joint prosthesis made of titanium alloy is capable to withstand up to 3,000 kg). They are sturdier than chrome, nickel, stainless steel.

The surfaces of medical instruments of titanium alloys do not deteriorate by sterilizing with alcohol, burning, formalin vapors, etc.

High plasticity of titanium alloys makes it possible to obtain wire mesh and foil. Wire mesh is used for soft tissue plastics. This wire mesh is sewn with an atraumatic needle with a titanium thread. Titanium monofilament thread is also used in ophthalmology.

The use of titanium alloys was also very successful in dentistry. Titanium alloys are easily combined with porcelain and composite cements. They are used for cast frames of dental prosthesis, dental bridges and crowns. Titanium frameworks are easily coated with ceramics. Such prostheses are durable and serve for 10-15 years. Doctors widely use the most advanced technology for the manufacture of dentures - titanium implants. The titanium root is implanted in the jaw then the upper part of the tooth is grafted on it.

Titanium devices (implants, intraosseous fixators, external and internal prostheses) are absolutely safe for bones and muscles. Prostheses made of titanium alloys are very durable. Titanium is 2-4 times stronger than iron and 6-12 times stronger than aluminum. Titanium has one more advantage which is also appreciated in medicine: titanium is a non-magnetic metal.

And most important - titanium alloys are absolutely hypoallergic.

It is possible to conduct scanning using MRI devices of patients with titanium devices or if surgical instruments are needed during the process.

Patients having titanium prostheses can be treated with physiotherapy using instruments based on physical phenomena - electric currents and magnet.


Люготип ПМК

LLC "PMK" Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Russian Federation. Project development and production of titanium surgical instruments and devices.

Moscow Office

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