Химический состав титанаTitanium is a chemical element with serial number 22, atomic weight 47.88, light silver-white metal. The density is 4.51 g/cm3, Tm = 1668+(-)5°C, b.p.= 3260°C. Titanium and titanium alloys combine lightness, durability, high corrosion resistance, low coefficient of heat expansion, ability to work in a wide range of temperatures.

History titanium's discovery

Titanium oxide TiO2 was first discovered in 1789 by the 28-year-old English monk William Gregor. In 1790, conducting mineralogical research in his parish, he noticed the prevalence and unusual properties of black sand in the valley of Menacana in the south-west of England and started to investigate it. In the sand the priest discovered particles of black, shiny mineral, attracted by an ordinary magnet. He named the unknown metal oxide menakanite. The first sample of metallic titanium was extracted by the Swedish chemist and mineral scientist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1825.
The purest titanium obtained in 1925 by Van Arkel and de Bour using iodide method was found to be a plastic and processable metal with a lot of valuable properties that drew the attention of a wide range of designers and engineers.

Titanium is a ductile metal, machinable: suitable for cutting, drilling, milling, grinding. Use it to produce different devices is not harder than from stainless steel.

Russia has the world's second largest reserves of titanium after China. The mineral-raw-material base of titanium in Russia totals 20 deposits (11 are primary and 9 placer deposits). The largest of the developed deposits (Yaregskoye) is located 25 km from the town of Ukhta, Komi Republic.
Metal extraction from a mineral deposit requires a huge amount of energy and time - it makes titanium expensive compared to other metals such as steel.

Advantages and disadvantages of titanium


  • Low density (4500 kg/m3) reduces the weight of the products;
  • High mechanical strength. It should be noted that at elevated temperatures (250-500°C), titanium alloys are stronger than high-strength aluminum and magnesium alloys;
  • Extremely high corrosion resistance due to the ability of titanium to form on the surface of thin (5-15 microns) solid TiO2 oxide films firmly dependent on the mass of the metal;
  • Strength-to-weight ratio of the best titanium alloys reaches 30-35 and more which almost twice exceeds that of alloyed steels.


  • High production costs, titanium is much more expensive than iron, aluminum, copper, magnesium;
  • Difficulties in using of titanium wastes in the production;

The high cost of titanium and its alloys is often compensated for by their greater efficiency and sometimes it is the only material fit to produce equipment or devices capable of operating under the certain conditions.

Люготип ПМК

LLC "PMK" Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Russian Federation. Project development and production of titanium surgical instruments and devices.

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